The conditioning the human fetus in utero (1948) Spelt DK. Journal of Experimental Psychology; 38: 338-346.

Mother’s heartbeat as an imprinting stimulus (1962) Salk L. Transactions of the New York Academy of Science; 24: 761-762.

Emotional factors in prenatal environment (1965) Ferreira AJ. J Nerv Ment Dis; 141: 108-9.

Ontogenetic development of the human Sleep-Dream Cycle (1966) Roffwarg, Muzio and Dement. Science; 152: 604-619.

The embryology of behavior: The beginnings of the human mind. (1972) Gesell, A. Reprod. of 1945. p. 289 Greenwood Press, Westport CT

Follow up study from birth of the effects of prenatal stresses (1973) Stott DH. Dev Med Child Neurol; 15(6): 770-787.

Conceptions of prenatal development. Behavioral embryology (1976) Gottlieb G.Psychological Rewiew; Vol. 83, No. 3: 215-234

Children in the womb; the effects of stress (1977) Stott DH. New Society; May 19: 329-31.

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Of human bonding: newborns prefer their mother’s voices (1980) De Casper and Fifer. Science; 208: 1174.

Sensory and perceptual capacities of the neonate (1982) Atkinson J, Braddick O, in Paul Stratton (Ed.) Psychobiology of the Human Newborn, pp. 191-220. London: John Wiley.

Psychological consequences of intervention in the birth process.(1983) Bradley, CF. Canad. J. Behav. Sci. 15(4), 422–438

The effects of holding the newborn at delivery on paternal bonding.(1983) Toney, L. Nurs. Res. 32(1), 16–19

Before birth: effects of prenatal influences on later life (1984) Carey-Smith MJ. New Zealand Medical Journal; Jan 11: 15-17.

Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life (1984) Prechtl HFR. Oxford: Blackwell.

The emergence of fetal behavior. Quantitative aspects (1985) De Vries, Visser and Prechtl. Early Human Development; 12: 99-120.

Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns perception of speech sound (1986) De Casper and Spence. Infant Behavior and Development; 9: 133-150.

Enhancing early speech, parental bonding and infant physical development using prenatal intervention in standard obstetric practice (1986) Van de Car, MD and Leherer, M. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal; 1(1).

Teaching the unborn: precept and practice (1987) Logan, B. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal; 2(1).

Influence of gentle birth delivery procedures and other perinatal circumstances on infant temperament: Developmental and social implications (1987) Maziade et al. In: Chess et al (eds.) Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development. Brunner/Mazel, New York NY, pp. 291–295

Prenatal University; commitment to fetal-family bonding and the strengthening of the family unit as an educational institution (1988) Van de Carr, MD and Lehrer, M. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal; 3(2).

Birth conditions and the adult personality (1989) Feher and Gerstman. Birth Psychol. Bull. 10, 1–108

Fetal learning: implications for Psychiatry? (1989) Hepper PG. British Journal of Psychiatry; 155: 289-293.

Birth, trauma, memory and self image: Investigation by means of Royer's narration task (1989) Marchal et al. [Colloquium of the Rorschach Society (1988, Brussels, Belgium]. Archives de Psychologie 57(222), 195–214


The uncovering of fetal competence (1990) Tajani and Ianniruberto. in Papini et al. (eds.) Developement Handicap and Rehabilitation: Practice and Theory, pp. 3-8. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Correlazione tra la vita prenatale e formazione della personalità. Studio preliminare attraverso l’osservazione di due gemelli (1990) Negri, Guareschi-Cazzullo et al. Quaderni di psicoterapia infantile,; 2: 148-165. Roma: Borla.

Cesarean section and delayed contact: Effect on baby's behaviour (1990) Gathwala and Narayanan. Indian Pediat.27(12), 1295–1299

Adoption from the inside out: A psychoanalytic perspective (1990) Brinich, PM. In Brodzinsky and Schechter, M.D. (eds.) The psychology of adoption. Oxford University Press, New York NY, pp. 42–61

Premonition of foetal death (1990) Chapman K, and Chapman R. Stress Medicine 6(1), 43–45

Neonatal facial and cry responses to invasive and non-invasive procedures (1990) Grunau, R.V., Johnston, C.C., and Craig, K.D. Pain 42(3), 295–305

Influence of cesarean section on mother-baby interaction (1991) Gathwala, G., and Narayanan. Indian Pediat. 28(1), 45–50

Fetal psychology: An embryonic science (1992) Hepper, PG. In: Nijhuis, JG. (ISBN 0-129620-89-4) Oxford University Press, Oxford

Effects of early suckling of cesarean-born babies on lactation (1992) Sozmen, M. Biol. Neonate 62(1), 67–68

Newborn and fetal responses to maternal voice (1993) Hepper, Scott and Shahidullah. J. Reprod. Infant Psychol. 11(3), 147–153

Prenatal behavior development: Ontogenetic adaptations and non-linear processes (1993) Provine, R. In: Savelsbergh, GJP. (ed.) The development of coordination in infancy. Advances in psychology, Vol. 97, North-Holland/Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam NL, pp. 203-236

The developmental origins of fetal responsivenes to an acoustic stimulus (1993) Shahidullah and Hepper. J. Reprod. Infant Psychol. 11(3), 135–142

The perception of the unborn across the cultures of the world (1994) von Raffler-Engel, W. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Seattle WA

Exercise and pregnancy: A review (1994) Bell, R and O'Neill, M. Birth 21(2), 85–95

Pain in children: Specific aspects (1994) Fournier-Charriere and Dommergues. Rev. Prat. 44(14), 1925–1931

The relationship between prenatal maternal attachment, postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal role attainment.(1994). Fowles, E.R. p. 194, Dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago IL

Factors of pathological stress related to prenatal hospitalization. (1994) Glangeaud Freudenthal, MC. J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. 23(3), 289–293

Maternal and fetal determinants of adult diseases (1994) Goldberg, GR and Prentice, AM. Nutrition Rev. 52(6), 191–200

The beginnings of mind: Evidence from the behaviour of the fetus (1994) Hepper, PG and Shahidullah, S. J. Reprod. Infant Psychol. 12(3), 143–154

Becoming attached: Unfolding the mystery of the infant-mother bond and its impact on later life (1994) Karen, R. Warner Books, Inc, New York NY

Developmental screening at four years of age. Relation to home situation, perinatal stress, development and behaviour (1994) Larsson et al. Acta Pædiat. 83(1), 46–53

Regulation of intrauterine growth: The role of maternal health (1994) Lowy, C. Horm. Res. 42(4-5), 203–206

Fetal behaviour in uncomplicated pregnancies after 41 weeks of gestation (1994) Vandepas, Nijhuis and Jongsma. Early Hum. Dev. 40(1), 29–38

Working with pre- and perinatal material in psychotherapy (1995) Verny, TR. Int. J. Prenat. Perinat. Psychol. Med. 7(3), 271–284

Fetal behaviour as a test of fetal wellbeing (1995) Vindla, S and James, D. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaec. 102(8), 597–600

The sound-object: A hypothesis about prenatal auditory experience and memory (1995) Maiello, S. J. Child Psychotherapy 21(1), 23–41

Fetal Development: A psychobiological perspective (1995) Lecanuet et al. (eds.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ

Life in the womb and beyond: Fetal patterns of behaviour and postnatal interaction (1995) Lee, B. J. Royal Soc. Med. 88(6), P359–P362

Neurobehavioral development in the human fetus (1995) James, Pillai and Smoleniec. In: Lecanuet et al. Fetal development: A psychobiological perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ. pp. 101–128

Human fetal behaviour and maternal cocaine use: a longitudinal study (1995) Hepper, PG. Neurotoxicol. 16(1), 139–143

The effect of maternal posture on fetal cerebral oxygenation during labour. (1995) Aldrich, Dantona et al, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 102(1), 14–19

Weight growth in infants born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (1995) Conter et al. Brit. Med. J. 310, 768–771

Developmental aspects of alterations in fetal behaviroal states (1995) Gagnon, R. In: Lecanuet et al. Fetal development: A psychobiological perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ. pp. 129–148

Fetal growth and the etiology of preterm delivery (1995) Hediger et al. Obstet. Gynecol. 85(2), 175–182

Determinants of mother infant interaction: Effects of prenatal drug exposure, social support, and infant temperament (1995) Schuler, Black, and Starr. J. Clin. Child Psychol. 24(4), 397–405

The prenatal period as the origin of character structures (1995) Segui, MC. Int. J. Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 7(3), 309–322

Tracing developmental trajectories into the prenatal period. fetal development (1995) Smotherman and Robinson. in Lecanuet et al. (eds.) Fetal development: a psychobiological perspective, pp. 15-32. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fetal yawning (1995) Sepulveda and Mangiamarchi. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 5(1), 57–59

Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys (1995) Taddio et al. Lancet 344(8945), 291–292

Paternal influences on birthweight (1995) Wilcox, MA. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 74(1), 15–18

Fetal behavioral states (1995) Wladimiroff, Vaneyck, and Huisman. In: Copel and Reed (eds.) Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Raven Press, New York NY, pp. 199–204

Whats in a name: Is the pregnant woman a mother: Is the fetus a baby (1996) Decrespigny, L. Austr. N. Zeal. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 36 (4), 435–436

Into the mind unborn (1996) Conarts, D. New Scientist 152(2052), 40–45

Pregnancy after 35 and attachment to the fetus (1996) Berryman and Windridge. Reprod. Infant Psychol. 14(2), 133–143

The relationship between psychological distress during pregnancy and birth weight for gestational age (1996) Hedegaard et al. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 75(1), 32–39

Comparison of skin-to-skin contact with standard contact in low-birth-weight infants who are breast-fed. (1996) Blaymore Bier et al. Arch. Ped. Adol. Med. 150(12), 1265-1269

Origins and early development of perception, action and representation (1996) Berenthal, BI. Ann. Rev. Psychol. 47, 431–459

The preterm prediction study: maternal stress is associated with spontaneous preterm birth at less than thirty-five weeks' gestation. (1996) Copper et al. Am. J., Obstet. Gynecol. 175(5), 1286–1292

The impact of child characteristics on mothers sleep patterns (1996) Crowe, Clark and Qualls. Occup. Therapy J. Res. 16(1), 3–22

A fetal yawn (1996) Egerman, and Emerson. N. Engl. J. Med. 335, 1497 and N. Engl. J. Med. 336(18), 1330

Fetal memory: Does it exist? What does it do? (1996) Hepper, PG. Acta Pædiatrica 85 Suppl., 16—20

Intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery: The influence of maternal smoking and psychological factors (1996) Nordentoft et al. Am. J. Publ. Health 86(3), 347–354

Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with the nonstress test at 26 to 33 weeks gestation (1997) Ohel et al. J. Matern. Fetal Invest. 7 (2), 65–67

Psychic life before birth: The enduring effects of prenatal experience (1997) Janus, L. Aronson, Northvale

Memory in utero (1997) Hepper, PG.Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 39(5), 343--346

The foetus emotional experiences (1997) Righetti PL. OMAEP International Congress – Padova.

Le emozioni e gli stati dell’Io Prenatale.Fondamenti Biologici e Psicologici dell’Educazione Prenatale (1998) Righetti P. III OMAEP International Congress – Roma.

Alle origini della mente: lo studio della vita psichica fetale (1998) Della Vedova A, Imbasciati A. Giornale di Neuropsichiatria dell’Età Evolutiva

Maternal care, gene expression, and the development of individual differences in stress reactivity (1999) Francis et al. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 896, 66–84


The role of sensory stimulation in perinatal development: insights from comparative research for care of the high-risk infant (2000) Lickliter, R. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 21(6), 437–447

Prima filii imago (2000). Fava Vizziello, Cristiani e Righetti. NAM, Nuovi Argomenti in Medicina. Milano.

Maternal social support predicts birth weight and fetal growth in human pregnancy (2000) Feldman et al. Psychosom. Med. 62, 715--725

Like mother, like daughter: evidence for non-genomic transmission of parental behavior and stress responsivity (2001) Champagne, F, and Meaney, MJ. Prog. Brain Res. 133 287–302

Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations (2001) Meaney, MJ. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24 1161–1192

Fetal stimulation and activity state (2001) Mulder et al. Lancet 357(9254), 478–479

Antepartum depressive symptomatology is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes (2001) Chung, et al. Psychosom. Med. 63 830--834

Association between psychological symptoms in adults and growth in early life: longitudinal follow up study (2002) Cheung, et al. BMJ 325(7367), 749—751

Conditioning and Hyperalgesia in Newborns Exposed to Repeated Heel Lances (2002) Taddio Aet al. JAMA 288(7), 857–861

Depressive reactions and stress related to prenatal medicine procedures (2002) Kowalcek et al. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 19(1), 18-23

Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition (2003) Kisilevsky et al. Psychol Sci., 14, 220-4.

Grief and its impact on prenatal attachment in the subsequent pregnancy (2004) O'Leary J. Arch Womens Ment Health. 7(1):7-18.

Why stressful lives begin before birth. Ferry, G. New Scientist 150 (2005), 19

Maternal and fetal representations, dimensions of personality, and prenatal attachment in women hospitalized with high-risk pregnancy (2007) Brandon et al. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 55(1):253-9.

A literature update on maternal-fetal attachment. (2008) Alhusen JL. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. May-Jun; 37(3):315-28.

The father factor: men can make the difference (2008) Ingram J. Pract Midwife;11(11):15-6.

Theories of attachment: the long and winding road to an integrative developmental science (2008) Lickliter, R. Integr Psychol Behav Sci;42(4):397-405.

Foetal sensitivity to properties of maternal speech and language (2009) Kisilevsky et al. Infant Behav Dev., 32, 59-71.

Understanding and promoting attachment (2009) Wilson SL. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv.47(8):23-7.


Definitions matter: if maternal-fetal relationships are not attachment, what are they? (2010) Walsh J. Arch Womens Ment Health. 13(5):449-51.

Anxiety disorders before birth and self-perceived distress during pregnancy: associations with maternal depression and obstetric, neonatal and early childhood outcomes (2010) Martini et al. Early Hum Dev., 86, 305-10.

Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive development: moderation by infant-mother attachment (2010) Bergman et al. Biol Psychiatry, 67, 1026-32.

Effect of maternal depression on child behavior: a sensitive period? (2010) Bagner et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 49(7):699-707.

Foetal response to induced maternal emotions (2010) Araki et al. J Physiol Sci. 60, 213-20.

Wired to be social: the ontogeny of human interaction (2010) Castiello et al. PLOS One, 5(10).

Psychological factors during pregnancy correlated with infant low birth weigh (2010) Gracka-Tomaszewska M. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 16, 216-9.

The Effect of Maternal Stress on Birth Outcomes: Exploiting a Natural Experiment (2010). Torche, F. Demography November 2011, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 1473-1491

Comparison of maternal-and paternal-fetal attachment in Turkish couples (2010) Ustunsoz et al. Midwifery. 26(2):e1-9.

The effect of stress and anxiety associated with maternal prenatal diagnosis on feto-maternal attachment. (2011) Allison SJ, Stafford J, Anumba DO. BMC Womens Health. Jul 12;11:33.

First-time fathers' experiences of childbirth--a phenomenological study (2011) Premberg Ået al. Midwifery. 27(6):848-53.

The Limerick Lullaby project: an intervention to relieve prenatal stress (2012) Carolan et al. Midwifery. 28(2):173-80.

Prenatal prediction of poor maternal and offspring outcomes: implications for selection into intensive parent support programs (2012) Chittleborough, Lawlor et Lynch. Matern Child Health J. 16(4):909-20.

What helps the mother of a preterm infant become securely attached, responsive and well-adjusted? (2012) Evan, Whittingham and Boyd. Infant Behav Dev. 35(1):1-11.

Sing to your belly (2012) Fink, C. Midwifery Today Int Midwife. (104):40-2.

The association of prenatal attachment and perinatal factors with pre- and postpartum depression in first-time mothers (2012) Goecke et al. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 286(2):309-16.

Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample (2012) Haltigan et al. Infant Behav Dev;35(1):83-93.

The effectiveness of a perinatal education programme on smoking, infant care, and psychosocial health for ethnic Turkish women (2012) Hesselink et al. Midwifery; 28(3):306-13.

Prenataland postpartum maternal psychological distress and infant development: a systematic review (2012) Kingston, Tough and Whitfield. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev; 43(5):683-714.

Maternal attachment representations and initiation and duration of breastfeeding (2012) Scharfe E. J Hum Lact. 28(2):218-25.

Perceived partner support in pregnancy predicts lower maternal and infant distress (2012) Stapleton et al. J Fam Psychol. 26(3):453-63.

Not-patient and not-visitor: a metasynthesis fathers' encounters with pregnancy, birth and maternity care (2012) Steen et al. Midwifery. 28(4):362-71.

Babies have rights, too (2012) Tritten J. Midwifery Today Int Midwife. (104):5.

Prenatal predictors for father-infant attachment after childbirth.(2012) Yu et al. J Clin Nurs. 21(11-12):1577-83.

Epigenetica e Psiconeuroendocrino-Immunologia (2014). Bottaccioli F.  - Edra Edizioni 

Psicologia Clinica Perinatale. Dalla teoria alla pratica (2018). Quatraro, R.M. e Grussu P. - Ed. Erickson, Trento

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